A

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B

Back: n. The back of the change is the part of the change that is rung last.

Backstroke: adv. (Also known as tail stroke) one of the component actions of ringing in which the sally is near or through the ceiling. This stroke concentrates on the tail-end.

Bearings: n. The housing in which the gudgeons, or pivot of the bell swings. Traditionally they were plain bearings made of brass and need regular greasing. Modern bearings are self-aligning ball bearings and need little maintenance. See diagram of a bell.

Balance: n. The balance point of the bell is found when the bell is in the up position. The weight of the bell is positioned exactly over the pivot point of the bearings making the bell feel as though it is only a fraction of its weight. When the bell is set is rests further over from the balance and must be pulled on to the balance before ringing commences. During ringing the bell should not be allowed to travel further than the balance as more effort is required to ring.

Band: n. A band of ringers is a group ringing together, either at their home church, i.e. the local band, or for a special occasion, i.e. a peal band.

Behind: n. The final place in a change. When odd bell methods are rung on an even number of bells the tenor is rung behind, also known as covering.

Blows: n. A blow is when the bell makes a noise in the desired place, for example 'two blows in lead' means to lead twice consecutively. The order in which the handstroke and backstroke are rung is dictated by the method.

Bob: n. 1. A call made to increase the permutations possible in a touch. 2. Part of a name of a method indicating that it contains dodges.

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C

Call: 1. n. Usually a bob or a single which is called at the correct place during a method. The call indicates to the ringers to ring in a different place than they would have, thus allowing them to ring more permutations. A piece of ringing with no calls is called a plain course. For further details see main article. 2. v. To call a piece of ringing is to be the conductor. One can also call call changes.

Call Changes: n. (Also known as called changes) A simpler way of producing patterns of changes than method ringing. The conductor indicates with a call that two bells should swap over, for example "two to three" means that bells 2 and 3 must swap so that bell 2 is following bell 3. This is only one example of the various way of calling call changes, another being calling off cards. The best examples of call change ringing comes from Devon, where they concentrate on them more than on method ringing.

Cannons: n. The metal loops that are cast at the top of the bell. Originally used to attach the bell to the headstock modern bells are often cast without them as they are no longer required when using modern fittings. Some bells have had their cannons removed, often because they are deemed unnecessary with modern fittings.

Cards: n. A little used method of ringing, using cards displayed in the centre of the circle to indicate where each bell should ring. Each ringer has a different card which is divided into a grid containing numbers. The numbers indicate which bell that ringer should follow. The conductor calls change or next to indicate when to follow the next bell in the sequence. To ring off cards: v. The act of using cards in ringing.

Change: 1. n. Similar to a bar of music, more correctly known as a row. Each bell must ring once only, the next change being rung once all bells have rung. 2. v. A command sometimes used when ringing off cards

Change ringing: v. The act of ringing methods.

Circle: 1. n. The position that the ropes are in within the tower is known as the rope circle. Each circle is different, some presenting problems such a obstacles that cannot be seen through or items that could be caught by the rope. Some circles in ground floor rings contain the font in the centre. 2. v. To circle a tower is to ring every bell. This is usually considered significant during peals and quarter peals.

Clapper: n. The hammer that is used to strike the bell. It is attached to a pivot in the crown of the bell and pivots in the same direction as the swing of the bell. As the bell rotates the clapper moves with the bell, until the bell slows at the peak of its swing, at which point the clapper continues and strikes the inside lip of the bell. Originally clappers were made of wrought iron, but now they are made of spheroidal graphite iron. See diagram of a bell.

Composition: n. In order to call a touch, the conductor must learn the composition, which indicates when to make calls during the piece of ringing. For a peal the composition must be learned by heart as no visual aids are permitted. To compose is to create a touch, which should have no changes repeated.

Conductor: n. The person who is in charge of a certain piece of ringing. The conductor tells the band when to start and stop ringing, makes any calls necessary, ensures people are ringing in the correct place and indicates any striking errors that need correcting.

Course: 1. n. A piece of ringing similar in length to a plain course. A course may be rung on its own as a short touch or it may be part of a longer piece of ringing such as a quarter peal, which would be made up of several courses. 2. v. To course is to be following what another bell is doing, but not necessarily ringing immediately after it. This is most easily seen in plain hunt (see main article for diagram and further details) where bells are ringing a step at a time down to lead. The bell you are coursing is the bell that leads immediately before you lead. This is your course bell. The coursing order is the order in which the bells are coursing, and is often used by conductors to determine if the bells are in the correct order.

Cover: 1. n. Having a tenor cover means that the tenor bell is always rung at the back of the change. This usually only occurs when an odd bell method is being rung on an even number of bells. 2. v. To cover means to ring the tenor as a cover bell.

Crown: n. The flatter area at the top of the bell. Any cannons are on the crown of the bell.

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D

Date Touch: A piece of ringing that is the same number of changes as the number of the year. For example a date touch in 2002 would be 2002 changes long, which would take approximately 1 hour 10 minutes to ring. It is comparable in length to a quarter peal.

Dodge: n. A dodge is when a bell swaps places with another for one blow before returning to its original place. During hunting it is seen more clearly as taking a step in reverse before continuing in the direction you were originally hunting. Multiple dodges make the bells appear to be zigzagging with one another. To dodge v. is to carry out this action.

Down: adv. When a bell is in the down position the mouth of the bell is facing down. This is the position in which the bell is safe. See also: Up, Ring up, and Ring down.

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E

Extent: n. The total possible changes available on any number of bells rung together in one touch without repetition.

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F

Fittings: n. The fixtures that are used to hang the bell for ringing. These include the headstock, the wheel, the clapper, the stay and slider.

Follow: v. 1. To follow a bell is to ring immediately after it. 2. To follow a bell down (to lead) is to course a bell down, most easily seen while hunting, so that you lead after the bell you are following leads.

Frame: n. The structure which houses the bells within the tower. There are many different types of frames, the most common being the low-side frame, where the bearings rest on the highest beam of the frame. See diagram of a bell.

Front: n. The front is the beginning of the change. The first couple of places are usually considered to be the front.

Full Circle Ringing: v. Ringing in the English style, where the route of the bell describes a full circle. For a more detailed description click here.

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G

Go: n. The status of a ring of bells with regards to how easy they are to ring, e.g. these bells go well indicates that they are easy to ring. The go of a bell is relative to its weight, but not defined by it. A light bell should go better than a heavy bell, but this is not always the case. The example above is often defined further by saying these bells go well for their weight. The go of the bells can affect the handling and striking of the bells.

Ground Floor: n. A ground floor ring is one where the bells are rung from the ground floor, often opening onto the church via the tower arch.

Gudgeon: n. The pivot point of the bell. The gudgeons are attached to the headstock from which the bell hangs, and are encased in the bearings which are situated on the top of the frame.

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H

Handling: 1. v. Concerning how well a bell goes. An alternative term for the go of a bell, but generally concerned more with the overall ease of ringing, while go indicates more how hard a pull is required. The term is usually used do these bells handle well?. 2. n. The control one has over a bell. The physical ability to ring a bell, disregarding the issues of method ringing, is known as bell handling. To have a poor handling style it to not be in control of the bell, or to be ringing inefficiently thus expending more effort than required. A good handling style is required for more advanced method ringing.

Handstroke: adv. (Also known as Sally stroke) One of the component actions of ringing in which the sally is caught and let go.

Headstock: n. The beam that the bell is directly suspended from. Originally made of hardwood such as oak, now made of steel. See diagram of a bell.

Hunt 1. n. Plain hunt is the simplest method. All bells take it in turns to hunt to the front and to the back, even numbered bells starting by going in to the front and odd numbered bells by going out to the back. For a diagram of plain hunt see the main article. 2. v. To hunt is to change position one step at a time towards the back or the front of the change. Hunting up is hunting to the back of the change, hunting down to the front of the change.

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I

In: adv. To go in is to hunt to the front of the change.

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J

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K

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L

Lead: 1. v. To lead is to be the first bell to ring in the change. To lead full is to lead at handstroke then backstroke. To lead wrong is to lead at backstroke then handstroke. 2. n. Methods are usually made up of leads. A lead is the period of ringing between each time the treble leads. The lead head is the change when the treble is leading at backstroke during its full lead, the lead end is the change when the treble is leading at handstroke during its full lead.

Line: n. A way of writing a method where the path of each bell is condensed into a line, also known as the blue line. For more information see main article.

Lip: n. The side of the bell where it flares out to the mouth. It is the part that the clapper hits. See diagram of a bell.

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M

Method: n. The sequences of bells made up of consecutive changes, effectively, the different "tunes" that are rung. Methods are created in a scientific manner, hence the alternative name for change ringing: scientific ringing. More detail can be found in the main article.

Mouth: n. The mouth of the bell is the wide opening out of which the sound comes.

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N

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O

Out: adv. To go out is to hunt to the back of the change.

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P

Peal: 1. n. A peal of bells, also known as a ring of bells, is a set of bells housed in a suitable building. The number of bells in a peal ranges from 2 to 16. 2. n. A period of ringing, usually taken to mean at least 5000 changes, but also used to indicate a piece of call change ringing. A full peal takes approximately three hours to ring. See also quarter peal. 3. v. To peal usually means to ring bells with other people. This term is used more among non-ringers than by the ringing fraternity.

Places: n. Each position within a change is named after the bell that is in it during rounds. The first bell to ring is in 1sts place, the second bell to ring in 2nds place and so on. Ringing by places v. is a technique of ringing where you recall which place or position you should be in, rather than recalling which bell you should be following. A more detailed example can be found in the main article.

Plain Course: n. The name given to a piece of ringing when a method is rung but no calls are made.

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Q

Quarter Peal: n. A piece of ringing approximately a quarter of a full peal, usually 1260 or 1320 changes long, normally last around 45 minutes.

Quarter Wheel: n. One stage in the development of the full wheel. It comprised of one quarter of the circumference of a wheel and was attached to the headstock. The rope was attached to the uppermost part of the rim. See also wheel.

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R

Rounds: n. A particular change when the bells ring in order down the scale from the highest note to the lowest. Rounds are rung at the beginning and end of each piece of ringing. To ring rounds v. is to continuously ring this change until a further command is made.

Ring up: v. A bell must be rung up before full circle ringing starts. The bell is in the up position when the mouth of the bell is facing upwards. The ringer must swing the bell higher until it reaches the peak of its swing when the mouth is facing up.

Ring down: v. To ring down is to ring the bell until it is on the down position. This is a controlled action that gradually stops the bell from swinging as high as during normal ringing until it is resting with the mouth downwards.

Running board: n. The wooden board which the loose end of the slider rests on. On either end of the running board are stop blocks which stop the slider from going too far. The adjustment of these allows the bell to be fine or deep set.

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S

Sally: n. The section of rope that is woven with tufted wool, with often up to three colours. This is the section of rope that is grasped at handstroke and is woollen for greater comfort.

Set: v. A bell that is in the up position is set when the stay rests on the slider and the stay is carrying the weight of the bell. A bell that is deep set means that its resting position is a relatively long way further over than the balance of the bell, while a bell that is fine set is one where the resting position is not so far from the balance point of the bell. Bells are set in between each piece of ringing. The verbal command to set a bell is more commonly "stand".

Single: n. 1. A call made to increase the permutations possible in a touch. 2. Singles is the "surname" of a method rung on three bells.

Slider: n. The slider is the piece of wood that the stay rests against when it is set. It is attached to the frame at one end, the other end resting on the running board. The stay connects against the movable end, making it slide until it reaches the stop blocks. See diagram of a bell.

Stand: v. To stand a bell is to ease it onto the stay and into the set position. This can be done at either handstroke or backstroke.

Stay: n. The stay is attached to the headstock and protrudes straight up when the bell is down. It is part of the mechanism that allows the bell to be set. See diagram of a bell.

Striking: v. When ringing the aim is to achieve good striking. This is when the bells are evenly spaced, the gap between bells being a fraction of a second. There are striking competitions which test individual bands' abilities to ring well together as a team. The maintenance and go of the bells affects the striking.

Swing-chime: v. The precursor to full-circle ringing. The bell is positioned mouth down and is swung through a few degrees.

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T

Tail-end: n. The end of the rope that is gripped in the hand at all times. The rope is doubled back, or tucked, for comfort. Variations of this are the Yorkshire and Lancashire tail-ends which have tufted wool, similar to a sally, woven into the end of the rope.

Tenor: 1. n. The bell with the lowest note in the peal, usually the heaviest bell. The weight of a ring of bells is indicated by the weight of this bell. If a tower has 8 bells and only 6 are being rung, the lowest note bell of those being rung is called the tenor for the duration of that piece of ringing. 2. v. To tenor is to ring the tenor during a piece of ringing. To tenor behind is to ring the tenor during a piece of ringing in which the tenor always remains at the back of the change, or behind.

Tolling: v. Ringing a single bell, often used to signify a death.

Touch: n. A piece of ringing that is affected by calls.

Treble: n. The highest pitched bell in a ring of bells, usually the lightest bell. If a tower has eight bells but only six are being rung, for the duration of the piece of ringing the highest pitched bell is known as the treble. In many methods the treble carries out a simpler path than that of the working bells.

True: adj. A true piece of ringing is one where no changes are repeated. Changes can only be repeated if the piece of ringing is longer than an extent. In this case each change must repeated as few times as possible. For example if 1080 changes were required on 6 bells (extent=720 changes), then the 360 extra changes required must all be different. Overall 360 changes would be rung twice while the remaining 360 changes are rung just once. A peal will not be accepted unless it is true.

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U

Unaffected: adj. Not being effected by a call made during a touch.

Up: adv. When a bell is in the up position the mouth of the bell is facing up and the bell is ready to be rung. This is the position in which the bell is dangerous. See also: Down, Ring up, and Ring down.

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V

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W

Wheel: n. The wooden wheel is attached to the headstock from which the bell hangs. The bell is controlled by the ringer by using the rope that is attached to the wheel. The full wheel allows the bell to be rung in a full circle. Precursors to the full wheel include the quarter wheel. See diagram of a bell.

Whole-pull: adv. The ringing of one handstroke followed by one backstroke constitutes one whole-pull.

Work: n. The work is that which is rung during method ringing. During a touch each bell does not necessarily do all the work. A bell that is actively ringing a method is called a working bell. In most methods the treble is ringing a different line than the other bells and so is not a working bell. If the tenor is ringing behind it also is not a working bell.

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X

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Y

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Z

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Diagram of a bell: side view

diagram of a bell



Diagram of a bell: end view

diagram of a bell

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